Preparing the ground
Work conducted at the outset of a process to lay a stable foundation for constructive summit negotiations. This can include attempts to build trust and relationships, increasing the presidency’s visibility, and employing links to previous processes.
Teamwork refers to efficient cooperation between the main organizers hosting and supporting a negotiation, typically the host facilitation team and an international secretariat.
Communication refers to both internal and external information-sharing. It may include practical issues like schedules and group arrangements as well as information about the overall progress of the negotiations.
Key organizers and facilitators
Overall organisation of negotiations is the responsibility of the host facilitation team, supported by an international secretariat. Specific issues, agenda items or working groups are then delegated to individual facilitators from amongst the parties. Different facilitators generally play different roles depending on their formal position, expertise or decision-making power.
Refers to discussions that do not employ standard rules of procedure and where no formal decisions are taken. They are typically used for exploring options, gathering information, or building relationships. Normally there is no report of the meeting and no interpretation services provided.
Non-party stakeholders can affect a negotiation process in several ways, including through the provision of technical expertise, mobilising support or opposition, or interpreting the process, progress and outcome for the general public. Most non-party stakeholders are representatives of civil society, but non-party stakeholders might also represent businesses, research organisations or sub-national actors such as cities.
Refers to strategies and tools for bringing parties in a negotiation process closer to an agreement. This includes fostering a conducive negotiation atmosphere, encouraging issue linkage and package deals across different areas, strategic use of the rules of procedure, managing text effectively, and carefully managing the agenda.