Preparing the ground
Key organisers and facilitators
Informal dialogues
Non-party stakeholders
Convergence strategies


Transparent communication is constituted by a sufficient level of clear and up-to-date information regarding the negotiation process and progress made. Process generally refers to information about who negotiates with whom, at what time and where, while progress refers to the substance discussed.

Communication alignment

Communication alignment refers to the coherence and consistency of messages from different parts of the facilitation team and from different levels. When communication is aligned, all organisers are “on the same page” and negotiating parties or other actors receive consistent messages from parts of the organising team.    

Expectation management

Efforts by a host facilitation team and supporting secretariat to shape expectations from negotiation parties and others actors so that they match expected outcomes and are not too high or too low. This may include public assessments of progress made, identification of difficult issues, and creating an attractive "target narrative".